The History of Civilization, from the Fall of the Roman

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Dating all the way back to Roman times, there are still perfectly solid examples of buildings as ancient as 2000 years old. As we sat enjoying the bivouac hospitality (the dish was really excellent and our host in a shabby grey jacket still looked the accomplished man-about-town) my eyes kept on straying towards that corner. We can scarcely suppose, however, that the Phoenicians, if they penetrated so far south as this, could remain ignorant of the fact that West Africa was a gold-producing country, much less that, being aware of the fact, they would fail to utilise it.

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A Short History of the Crusades

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This is to say, Christianity was not passive in its intercourse with that inherited culture which it endeavoured to redeem, but very active. Two world wars and innumerable smaller ones bear testimony to it. In 1953, Sir Mortimer Wheeler proposed that the decline of the Indus Civilization was caused by the invasion of an Indo-European tribe from Central Asia called the "Aryans". In this sense, high culture no longer refers to the idea of being cultured, as all people are cultured.

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History of Civilization, Vol.I: To 1648

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The cow, which can be found across the globe, is an edifying illustration of this point. Before the coming of the Pakeha (white man) to New Zealand, all literature in Maori was orally passed onto succeeding generations. Drop in testosterone levels accelerated human prosperity, a new study suggests. Of him I had only heard that he was a very austere and pious person, always at Mass, and that sort of thing. Looking upon them as a whole it seems impossible; but as each has got only a limited part to play they may be found sufficient each for his particular trust.

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The Roman Empire in the 2nd Century

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In order to pass from one's earthly life into heaven one had to cross the bridge of forgetfulness over an abyss and, after looking back on one's life a last time, drink from a cup which purged all memory. In Book Two of his History of the Indies, Las Casas (who at first urged replacing Indians by black slaves, thinking they were stronger and would survive, but later relented when he saw the effects on blacks) tells about the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards.

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Legal Histories of the British Empire: Laws, Engagements and

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As populations expanded, some villages swelled into the world’s first cities. I've never been in there,'' announced Blunt with that flash of white teeth so strangely without any character of its own that it was merely disturbing. ``But she radiated life,'' continued Mills. ``She had plenty of it, and it had a quality. I assume that you mean to ask if Chinese culture is the longest continuous culture in the world, not if it is the first existing culture - that question mainly hinges on how you define culture and the interpretation of ambiguous archeological evidence (e.g. is polin in graves evidence of flowers and therefore funeral rituals?).

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History of Julius Caesar

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Western civilization refers to the period when the world began to live in organized communities with distinct military, economic, social, and political structures (1). Most of your thoughts are not well-grounded. Signs of pottery and stone tools are found from this period. The ir ony of all this is that FE technologies already exist and humanity does not have to head down this path where conventional energy prices continue to increase as we deplete the last remaining resources.� The choice is really ours; do we continue down this path of declining living standards for the majority of humanity or move into a world of energy abundance for all on Earth?� Some of us have been trying to rectify the situation, which is the next chapter's subject.

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The "Ur-Nammu" Stela (University Museum Monographs)

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In fact, nearly every act in which the Aztecs engaged was linked in one way or another to their gods. In the Spanish-ruled territories in the rest Central and South America, a scarcely less equal society has grown up. Mamun was a perfect example of this practicability. Ancient Greek architects strove for the precision and excellence of workmanship that are the hallmarks of Greek art in general. He is most exacting.'' I felt extremely sick at heart. ``And so I am to drop everything and vanish,'' I said, rising from my chair again.

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Tributary Empires in Global History (Cambridge Imperial and

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Many historians have paying attention on these broad cultural spheres and have treated civilizations as discrete units. By permission of the British Library 198 palace depicted against a rich gold background. Emphasize the period encompassed by the first four crusades, but includes comprehensive information encompassing the entire segment of history. "The fight for Senlac Ridge on October 14th 1066 is probably the only battle date that most Englishmen can be expected to remember.

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The Story of Mankind (Webster's Spanish Thesaurus Edition)

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If you decide to make it a king and queen ruled civilization, you may want to write a small textbook of previous rulers. The latter follows the invention of writing and therefore written historical records. Chim panzees are the most tool-using non-human great ape, and female chimps make and use tools more often than males do .� One problem with studying today�s animals and applying those findings to their ancestors is that their line has evolved too.� The ancestor of chimpanzees when the split was made with the human line did not look like today�s chimpanzees, and probably did not act quite like them.� However, chimpanzees and gorillas adapted to environments that have not remarkably changed for the past 8-10 million years, and it is unlikely that they have dramatically changed over that time. �Orangutans are similar. �Scientists have argued that since there is little evidence of morphological change in those great apes in the intervening years since they split from the human line, particularly in their cranial capacity, that they probably act similarly today and have similar capacities to their distant ancestors. [463] � Today�s chimps have nearly the same-sized brains as australopithecines did. �They make and use tools, and an orangutan was even trained in captivity to make stone tools .� All great apes have learned to use sign language and some even invent their own signs .� I think it very reas onable to believe that relatively sophisticated tool use among humanity�s ancestors predates, perhaps by several million years, those stone tools dated to 3.4-3.3 mya.� Tools may be hundreds of millions of years old, and insects, fish, cephalopods, and reptiles use tools today.� The protohuman equivalent of Nikola Tesla (although it may have been a female) discovered how to bang two rocks together to create a hard edge used for cutting, perhaps with a little inventor�s serendipity.� It may not be possible to overstate the significance of that invention. [464] � More than a million years of free hands, due to australopithecine bipedal posture, probably led to the most significant tool-making event in Earth�s history to that time.� The shortening fingers and lengthening thumbs of australopithecines led to more dexterity, and in training today�s great apes to make stone tools, their relative lack of dexterity has been noted as an impediment.� Also, the increasing dexterity of the protohuman hand is linked with neurological changes, from the hands to the brain, as early protohumans took tool-making to a new level, in another case of mutually reinforcing positive feedbacks. [465] Although that australopithecine may have been the smartest member of its species, with an ape IQ that went off the scale, his or her brain was the same size as the fellow members of his or her species, but that would not last long.� The swift climb to the appearance of Homo sapiens had begun.� When that likely human ancestor made the first stone tool, it was the culmination of a process of increasing encephalization and manipulative ability that probably began its ascent with the appearance of apes and accelerated when humanity�s ancestors became bipedal .� Studying great apes today and applying those findings to humanity�s ancestors is problematic, but there has probably not been significant evolution in great apes since they descended from the last common ancestor that they shared with humans, particularly chimpanzees.� About one mya, bonobos split from other chimpanzee populations and became a separate species, but for many years scientists did not realize it. �Another chimpanzee split about 1.5 mya created east and west chimp species that are virtually indistinguishable today.� It is widely considered to be very likely that the last common ancestor of chimps and humans looked like a chimp. [466] Other than hu mans, rhesus macaques are Earth�s most widespread primates, and both species are generalists whose ability to adapt has been responsible for their success.� Rhesus macaques are significantly encephalized, about twice that of dogs and cats, and nearly as much as chimpanzees.� Rhesus macaques have what is called Machiavellian social organization, in which everybody is continually vying for rank and power is everything.� Those with rhesus power get the most and best food, the best and safest sleeping places, mating privileges, the nicest environments to live in, and endless grooming by subordinates, whom the dominants can beat and harass whenever they want, while those low in the hierarchies get the scraps and are usually the first to succumb to the vagaries of rhesus life, including predation. [467] � It is the same energy game that all species play .� But ev en the lowliest macaque will become patriotic cannon fodder if his society faces an external threat, as even a macaque knows that a miserable life is better than no life at all.� The violence inflicted seems economically optimized; within a society the violence is mostly harassment, but when rival societies first come in contact, the violence is often lethal, as the initially established dominance can last for lifetimes.� Within a society, killing a subordinate does not make economic sense, as that subordinate supports the hierarchy.� Potentates rely on slaves.� The human smile evolved from the teeth-baring display of monkeys that connotes fear or submission. [468] For all of th eir seeming cunning and behaviors right out of The Prince, rhesus monkeys cannot pass the mirror test; they attack their images, as they see themselves as just another rival monkey.� Chimpanzees, on the other hand, pass the mirror test, and the threshold of sentience, whatever sentience really is, may not be far removed from the ability to pass the mirror test, or perhaps humanity has not yet achieved it.� Capuchin monkeys, consid ered the most intelligent New World monkeys, have socially based learning, in which the young watch and imitate their elders.� Different capuchin societies have different cultures and different tool-using behaviors reflected in different solutions to similar foraging problems. [469] � Capuchins, isolated from African and Asian monkeys for about 30 million years, have striking similarities to their Old World counterparts, with female-centric societies and lethal hierarchical politics.� As with chimpanzees and humans, ganging up on lone victims is the preferred method, which increases the chance of success and reduces the risk to the murderers. [470] � Unlike rhesus monkeys, for instance, capuchin males can help with infant rearing, but they will also kill infants that they did not father, as rhesus, chimpanzees, and gorillas also do (that behavior has been observed in 50 primate species). [471] � Those comparisons provide evidence that simian social organization results from the connection between simian biology and environment; their societies formed to solve the problems of feeding, safety, and reproduction.

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Japanamerica: How Japanese Pop Culture Has Invaded the U.S.

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So you respect nature, follow the laws of nature, and don’t be greedy. Today, env ironmental devastation is primarily inflicted by industrial nations as their mines scar the lands and they pour industrial pollutants into land, sea, and air .� This includes the result of energy disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of 2010 and the Fukushima nuclear disaster of 2011, following the Chernobyl meltdown of 1986, all of which were subjected to cover-up activities by those responsible and abetted by international interests trying to protect their public images.� Like the � fluoride is good for you � canard concocted by industrial interests, there has been a great deal of �radiation is benign or even good for you� propaganda flowing, particularly in the Fukushima disaster�s wake; but research has shown that all radiation is harmful, even far below levels that authorities have said is �safe.�� The work of an early nuclear propaganda dissident has unfortunately been vindicated.� Some of the very same interests behind the �fluoride is good for you� propaganda were behind the � radiation is benign or good for you � lies.� Those fabrications probably originated in and were promoted by the corporate/national-interest level, which lies below the GC level.� Industrialized nations nearly finished off the whales and are greatly responsible for deforesting Earth, although nations such as Japan have been exporting the devastation, as foreign forests are razed and shipped to Japan, while Japan treats its forests as sacred groves.� But also, the poor in former colonial nations have been pushed to ecosystem margins. �The prime arable land is usually owned by local oligarchs or foreign corporations; they often raise crops for export to the industrialized nations.� Guatemala and much of Central America comprise a pertinent example .� The peasants farm marginal lands, often hillsides, which not only devastate the last refuges of species driven into the hills, but it also erodes the hillsides, leaving behind moonscapes, which happened in the Old World long ago.� Those dyn amics, particularly habitat destruction, are largely behind today�s accelerating Sixth Mass Extinction, also called the Holocene Extinction .� �This pattern also extends back for perhaps a million years, not just since the ice sheets melted in this latest interglacial interval.� The five other major mass extinctions reached 70% or more of global species going extinct. �According to a recent estimate, 50% may be reached by 2100 for the human-caused extinction.� Other estimates have this level being reached as early as my lifetime, while others think it will be reached in a slightly longer timeframe. [892] � The current extinction rate is thought to be higher than those of all previous extinction events other than the one that exterminated the dinosaurs .� Humanity may �achieve� Permian levels of extinction. �Biologists and climate scientists are stupefied, and the global propaganda machine chugs along, making everything seem normal, while �scientists� in their employ work long and hard to downplay pollution, extinction, health catastrophes, genocide, and the rest, in a kind of Potemkin Earth strategy, gleaning profits and playing power games until the end.

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