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"World Fascism: A old Encyclopedia" 2 quantity set covers all of the key personalities and events during the heritage of fascism and brings to gentle many of the ideology's lesser-known features, from Hindu extremists in India to the influential position of convinced girls in fascist activities. How did an ideology which used to be brazenly arrogant of its trust in violence come to seduce the elites of a few of the main civilized countries on the earth? What can clarify fascism's enduring attraction?

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Despite the clarity of such examples, fascism’s relationship with religion is made problematic by the difficulty of drawing a neat demarcation line between the Introduction secular and the religious. In the United States, radicalright forms of Christianity, such as Christian Identity, and pagan variants of white supremacism, such as Aryan Nations, pose thorny taxonomic issues; some experts (notably Walter Laqueur) argue that radical religion itself—such as radical Islam and radical Hinduism—constitutes a form of “clerical fascism” that shows every sign of growing in importance in the new millennium.

But in the interwar period, fascism was forced into collusion with conservative forces for tactical reasons whenever the prospect of gaining power opened up, for it lacked the mass support to carry out the national revolution on its own. Mussolini’s Fascism is exemplary in that respect. Mussolini’s movement started out in 1919 with a radical program of anticlericalism and republicanism partly conceived in the Futurist spirit of making a radical break with the past. But within a decade the “anti-party” had become the basis of a deeply hierarchical single-party state that upheld the monarchy, had signed a pact with the Vatican, was instituting a cult both of “Romanness” and the state, and had become heavily dependent on Italy’s existing military establishment, business and industrial sector, and civil service for its survival.

Mussolini’s invocation of the Romans as the role model for the greatness of a nation would make no sense in Hitler’s speech (unless it were part of a general eulogy of the past cultural glories of Aryan peoples). There is furthermore an element of biological determinism in the second passage foreign to the first (although, as a matter of historical fact, Fascist Italy did eventually attempt to “Aryanize” and biologize its conception of the Italian race). Nor should it be inferred from these two passages that the two fascist leaders had the same view of art.

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