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Where these routes are not available, waste management costs are more difficult to predict, may have a greater influence and may dominate project cost. 14. CONCLUSIONS For this report an evaluation was made of the factors to be considered in planning and implementing a dismantling project for nuclear facility stacks. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the evaluation, as follows: (a) (b) (c) 46 Virtually all nuclear facilities have ventilation stacks which must be dismantled as part of broad site and facility decommissioning programmes.

32]. The 23 m tall exhaust stack of the Janus reactor, USA, was removed by this method using a boom lift and a crane [33]. Figure 23 shows the intact removal of a building exhaust stack at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. FIG. 23. Exhaust stack intact removal at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. 36 9. WASTE MANAGEMENT Waste management is a significant factor in stack dismantling. Waste is generated throughout the process and includes the structural material of the stack itself and integral ancillary systems, as well as secondary waste arising from decontamination, cutting and dismantling operations.

BEPO stack dismantling, United Kingdom. (a) Stack before dismantling; (b) working ‘cage’; (c) dismantling activity; (d) remediated site at the end of the dismantling project. a nuclear stack at Hanford, USA. The stack was felled precisely into a previously excavated trench. The collapsed structure was then covered over with soil to natural grade level. g. soil and sand heaps or ‘pillows’) and barriers. 31 FIG. 18. Mound facility, USA. Top-down breaking of a brick stack. 32 FIG. 19. Top-down breaking of a concrete stack, South Africa.

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