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16. The behaviour of the polarisation vector in the experiment of Berger and Kessler (1986). When the polarisation P of the incident electron beam is resolved into the components P\\ and Pn to the scattering plane, the polarisation P' of the scattered beam is given by (Kessler, 1985) . 49) PnS where n is the unit vector normal to the scattering plane. In the experiment of Berger and Kessler (1986) Pn = 0 and P = P,,, so that P' = Sii + T P + U(h x P). 50) When the Wien filter is switched off, the two pairs of counters in the Mott analyser allow the simultaneous measurement of the two transverse polarisation components Sh and U(nxP).

As illustrated in fig. 13, for a spin-up electron S • L and VSL a r e positive (negative) depending on whether the electron passes on the right (left) of the nucleus. Thus the electrons with spin up which pass the nucleus on the left are scattered to the right with a stronger force than the ones passing on the right and scattered to the left and vice versa for spin-down electrons. Hence the intensity of scattering to the right is greater than that to the left for spin up particles, and vice versa.

47) and the form of the Coulomb potential V(r\ it can be seen that the Fig. 13. Scattering of two electrons with spin up (out of scattering plane) by a nucleus. 36 2 Experimental techniques for cross-section measurements spin—orbit term will be largest for high Z targets and close approaches to the nucleus (high-energy large-angle scattering). g. Fletcher, Gay and Lubell, 1986). The construction and operation of Mott polarimeters (or detectors) has been fully described by Kessler (1985). In their most common configuration the detected electrons are scattered through +120° from a thin gold foil target at 100—120 keV.

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