By Brian Armstrong-Hélouvry (auth.)
It is my ambition in penning this ebook to carry tribology to the learn of regulate of machines with friction. Tribology, from the greek for examine of rubbing, is the self-discipline that matters itself with friction, put on and lubrication. Tribology spans a good variety of disciplines, from floor physics to lubrication chemistry and engineering, and contains investigators in different specialities. The English language tribology literature now grows at a expense of a few seven hundred articles in line with 12 months. yet for all of this job, within the 3 years that i've been curious about the regulate of machines with friction, i've got yet as soon as met a fellow controls engineer who was once conscious that the sphere existed, this together with many that have been all in favour of friction. during this vein i need to confess that, sooner than project those investigations, I too used to be unaware that an energetic self-discipline of friction existed. The adventure sticks out as a mark of the specialization of our time. inside tribology, experimental and theoretical figuring out of friction in lubricated machines is definitely constructed. The controls engineer's curiosity is in dynamics, which isn't the significant curiosity of the tribologist. The tribologist is extra frequently desirous about put on, with recognize to which there was huge, immense development - witness the numerous mechanisms which we purchase this day which are lubricated as soon as basically, and that on the manufacturing facility. notwithstanding a secondary curiosity, frictional dynamics are be aware forgotten by means of tribology.
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Additional resources for Control of Machines with Friction
As did Tou, Satyendra studied stability at zero velocity. Silverberg, , strives to separate the describing function of a static plus kinetic plus viscous friction element into frequency dependent and amplitude dependent parts, which greatly aids interpretation. Shen, , studies systems with static plus kinetic friction tracking a ramp position input. The shift in emphasis from the stationary to the slowly moving problem is important. The stationary limit cycling problem, that is, hunting, can always be solved with a dead band in the integral control.
Prior to collecting these data the arm was "warmed up" by a minute of motion throughout the workspace. 1. 2. 1 reveal considerable structure: the arm repeatedly accelerates and decelerates in a roughly sinusoidal pattern. 3. 5 0 00°. 2 .... 1 ° 2 Time 3 ( sec) 1 5 6 Velocity Resulting from the Application of a Constant Torque to Joint One of a PUMA 560 Robot. 1. , ...... 1 Plotted Against Position; Desired Velocity Shown. E Z c o ...... J... 4 Residual Torques of a Mass plus Viscous plus Kinetic Friction Model, Plotted Against Position.
261 Newton-meters (N-m) per Amp, and an average to peak ripple of 4% at 25 cycles per revolution. 70 N-m; reflected through the transmission, this gives a maximum torque of 100 N-m at joint 1. 2 Newton-meter steps at a rate of 40 steps per second. Break-away was established when motion (one or more shaft encoder pulses) was observed during two consecutive steps. The torque applied during the first interval with motion was taken to be the break-away torque. Highly variable "wind-up" was observed in the time prior to steady motion, and labeling the first shaft encoder pulse to arrive as the break-away event led to non-repeatable results.