By Christoph Stippich
The moment, revised version of this winning textbook offers an up to date description of using preoperative fMRI in sufferers with mind tumors and epilepsies. cutting-edge fMRI techniques are offered, with particular attention of functional points, imaging and knowledge processing, general and pathological findings, and diagnostic probabilities and obstacles. correct details on mind body structure, useful neuroanatomy, imaging process, and method is supplied via famous specialists in those fields. in comparison with the 1st variation, chapters were up-to-date to mirror the newest advancements and specifically the present use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI. fullyyt new chapters are incorporated on resting-state presurgical fMRI and the position of DTI and tractography in mind tumor surgical procedure. additional chapters handle multimodality practical neuroimaging, mind plasticity, and pitfalls, information, and tricks.
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Additional info for Clinical Functional MRI: Presurgical Functional Neuroimaging
The received signal also oscillates at that frequency and its amplitude reflects the sum of excited water protons of all glasses. Since all protons precess at the same frequency, the Fourier transform cannot be used to identify signals from different spatial positions along the x-axis. (b) If a gradient is applied in the x direction, the spins will p recess at frequencies that depend upon their position along the gradient. Spatial information is now frequency encoded: The strength of the signal at each frequency is directly related to the number of excited protons from the respective glass of water.
With appropriate data analysis and visualization methods, these BOLD measurements allow drawing conclusions about the localization and dynamics of brain function. After a description of the physical principles of MRI at a conceptual level, the physiology of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism is described. The subsequent, major part of the chapter provides an introduction to the current strategies of statistical image analysis techniques with a focus on the analysis of single-subject data because of its relevance for presurgical mapping of human brain function.
A complete image can thus be obtained in about 50–100 ms as opposed to several seconds with standard (functional) imaging sequences. GE-EPI is very sensitive to field inhomogeneities influencing the speed of dephasing (T2* contrast). This is essential for functional imaging (see below) but also produces image distortions called susceptibility artifacts, which occur especially at tissue boundaries. , expensive) gradient system to enable very rapid gradient switching. , Pruessmann et al. ” The basic idea of parallel imaging is the simultaneous acquisition of MRI data with at least two (typically 32 or more) receiver coils, each having a different spatial sensitivity.