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By Alain Meunier

Here's a finished and up to-do-date presentation of the origins, and homes of clay minerals on the Earth?s floor. The textual content experiences the rather easy legislation that govern the chemical or isotopic composition and the crystalline constitution of clays, after which discusses their genesis and alteration. Concluding chapters convey that clay minerals can shape in number of assorted environments: meteorites, lavas, subduction zones, between others.

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3 Identification Keys for Simple and Mixed-Layer Species of Clay Minerals Knowing the basic crystal structures of clay minerals, some identification keys can be given on the basis of their XRD properties: – the layer spacings (d001 ) are measured on oriented samples; – the octahedral structure (di- or tri-) is identified using randomly oriented powders (d060 ). The following tables give an overview of the main simple or interstratified species. 1 Simple Species Clay minerals are classified according to two essential criteria: the type of layer (1:1, 2:1 or 2:1:1) and the type of octahedral sheet (di- or trioctahedral).

5 down to 10 Å. They become almost impossible to distinguish from illite layers. Nevertheless, some techniques enable smectite layers to retain a thickness greater than 10 Å (Murakami 1993). X-ray diffraction may also be used to detect the presence of crystal defects when applied to randomly oriented powders. Indeed, crystal defects reduce the size of the coherent scattering domains in all directions. In particular, this changes the profile (intensity and width) of some hkl peaks and may even make them disappear.

14b). This probabilistic theory is detailed in a book by Drits and Tchoubar (1990). It is used as a basis by modelling software to calculate diffraction patterns, for instance NEWMOD (Reynolds 1985) or MLM2C (Planc¸on and Drits 2000). M´ering (1949) has proposed an elegant method for readily identifying randomly ordered or ordered mixed-layer minerals by X-ray diffraction. Indeed, he has shown that when the components of the mixed-layer mineral show neighbouring peaks, the latter interfere forming a wider diffraction band with an intermediate angular position.

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