Download Cities, Autonomy, and Decentralization in Japan (Routledge by Carola Hein, Philippe Pelletier PDF

By Carola Hein, Philippe Pelletier

Adding a brand new point of view to the present literature on decentralization in Japan, Cities, Autonomy and Decentralization in Japan, methods the topic from an city stories and making plans method. The essays within the assortment current a cogent compilation of case experiences targeting the previous, current and way forward for decentralization in Japan. those contain small scale improvement within the fields equivalent to citizen participation (machizukuri), city shape and structure, catastrophe prevention and conservation of monuments.

The individuals recommend that new traits are rising after the bursting of Japan's monetary bubble and determine them within the context of the country's better socio-political procedure. This in-depth research of the improvement outdoors of Japan presents a invaluable addition to scholars of city, Asian and jap Studies.

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This standard was applied uniformly to both built-up areas and newly urbanizing suburban areas. In other words, the essence of the zoning concept was not included in the law, which ignored differences between places that were already urban and those in the process of urbanizing, leading to major problems later on. %\ WKLV WLPH D UHSRUW SXEOLVKHG E\ WKH 'HXWVFKHU 9HUHLQ IU |IIHQWOLFKH *HVXQGKHLWVSÁHJH WKH*HUPDQSXEOLFKHDOWKDVVRFLDWLRQ RQ*HUPDQ\·VXQLÀHG EXLOGLQJFRQWUROV\VWHPZDVLQWURGXFHGLQ-DSDQE\0RULÑJDLDQDUP\RIÀFHULQ FKDUJHRISXEOLFK\JLHQHDQGDZHOONQRZQZULWHULQKLVHVVD\´Okusei Shingiµ &XUUHQWGLVFXVVLRQRQEXLOGLQJRUGLQDQFH  ,VKLGD² 7KH*HUPDQ report raised the point that, in addition to setting a national minimum building standard, there should be some allowance for each local government to address LWV SDUWLFXODU QHHGV 'HXWVFKHU 9HUHLQ IU |IIHQWOLFKH *HVXQGKHLWVSÁHJH  ²  $OWKRXJK WKH &LW\ 3ODQQLQJ 5HVHDUFK &RPPLWWHH SDLG DWWHQWLRQ WR UHJLRQDO differences – for example, the issue of streets in Osaka being too narrow to apply European building-height regulations – it did not consider introducing the idea of customizing standards or of applying stricter regulations to urban expansion or QHZO\FUHDWHGEXLOWXSDUHDV5DWKHULWLQLWLDWHGXQLIRUPO\ORRVHVWDQGDUGV City planning during the war years, 1930–45 Following the City Planning Law and the Urban Buildings Law, Japanese city SODQQLQJLQWHUPVRIWHFKQLTXHVSUDFWLFHDQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQXQGHUZHQWVLJQLÀFDQW JURZWK %\  WKH &LW\ 3ODQQLQJ /DZ KDG EHHQ DSSOLHG LQ  FLWLHV DQG WKH reconstruction projects after the Great Kanto Earthquake in Tokyo and Yokohama were completed in that year.

Miyake’s way of thinking was similar to that of Seki Hajime, who favored taxing land value increases and included that item in Osaka city’s budget even before the establishment of the betterment levy system. A heated debate over funding sources took place among members of the City 3ODQQLQJ5HVHDUFK&RPPLWWHHIRFXVLQJRQVXEVLGLHVDVWKHNH\UHYHQXHVRXUFHIRU city planning. The occurrence of this debate points up the fact that most members did not consider city planning to be a local issue, to be initiated by local governPHQWV7KHUHZDVQRDGHTXDWHGLVFXVVLRQRIWD[HVRQODQGYDOXHLQFUHDVH DVDFLW\ government revenue source) or a betterment levy and the return of development SURÀWV OLQNLQJFLW\SODQQLQJSURMHFWVDQGIXQGLQJ :KLOHWKHLVVXHRIFLW\SODQning and funding was addressed to some extent in the pre-World War II period, it GLGQRWPDNHVLJQLÀFDQWSURJUHVV The centralized structure of the 1919 City Planning Law and the Urban Area Buildings Law $VHDUO\DVWKH7RN\R&LW\$VVHPEO\KDGUDLVHGWKHTXHVWLRQRIZKHWKHU WKHFLW\ODFNHGVXIÀFLHQWSODQQLQJDXWKRULW\GHVSLWHKDYLQJWREHDUYLUWXDOO\DOO project costs.

DWVXQRVXNHZKRRSSRVHGDQ\VRXUFHVRIUHYHQXHRWKHUWKDQ those listed in the Ordinance, and the many other members of the committee who supported the new sources of revenue. &RQVHTXHQWO\ WKH VXEVLG\ ZDV QRW VSHFLÀHG LQ WKH &LW\ 3ODQQLQJ /DZ 7KH introduction of taxes on land value increases or on unutilized urban land, which local governments hoped would be formalized, was postponed. RED\DVKL DQG ÑED  One new revenue source – the betterment levy – was institutionalized, and became an important revenue source for the construction and widening of roads LQUHJLRQDOFLWLHV 7{N\{6KLVHL&K{VDNDL ,QPRVWFDVHV WKHUHZHUHVOLJKW regional variations), owners of roadside land were charged a certain portion of SURMHFW H[SHQVHV W\SLFDOO\ RQHWKLUG  7KHVH ODQGRZQHUV VWURQJO\ RSSRVHG WKH OHY\ DQG FDOOHG RQ WKH JRYHUQPHQW WR FODULI\ WKH PHDQLQJ RI ´EHWWHUPHQWµ DQG ZKHWKHUWKH\ZRXOGDFWXDOO\EHQHÀWIURPWKHGHYHORSPHQW$VDEHQFKPDUNRIWKH EHQHÀWWKHODQGRZQHUVGHPDQGHGWKDWDODQGHYDOXDWLRQEHPDGH7KHJRYHUQment tried to avoid introducing the land-evaluation system and used vague terms VXFKDV´WDQJLEOHDQGLQWDQJLEOHEHQHÀWVµ7KHODQGRZQHUVZHUHQRWFRQYLQFHG E\WKLVÀQDJOLQJDQGWKHV\VWHPRIEHWWHUPHQWOHYLHVFRXOGQRWEHGHYHORSHGLQD SRVLWLYHZD\VDWLVIDFWRU\WRERWKVLGHV ,VKLGDDQG)XUXVDWR  7KH+RPH0LQLVWU\·V2UGLQDQFH Naimushô rei QRRIRQWKHEHWWHUment levy in Osaka was a special case, including provisions for the appointment of appraisers and land evaluation after completion of the project to adjust the amount of the payment.

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