By Nicolas Raymond

This e-book is a synthesis of modern advances within the spectral conception of the magnetic Schrödinger operator. it may be thought of a catalog of concrete examples of magnetic spectral asymptotics.

Since the presentation contains many notions of spectral concept and semiclassical research, it starts off with a concise account of suggestions and strategies utilized in the booklet and is illustrated via many straight forward examples.

Assuming numerous issues of view (power sequence expansions, Feshbach–Grushin savings, WKB buildings, coherent states decompositions, common varieties) a idea of Magnetic Harmonic Approximation is then proven which permits, specifically, actual descriptions of the magnetic eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. a few elements of this thought, comparable to these regarding spectral discount rates or waveguides, are nonetheless obtainable to complex scholars whereas others (e.g., the dialogue of the Birkhoff general shape and its spectral results, or the implications relating to boundary magnetic wells in measurement 3) are meant for professional researchers.

Keywords: Magnetic Schrödinger equation, discrete spectrum, semiclassical research, magnetic harmonic approximation

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**Example text**

LjF / F D span. 1; : : : ; Œa; C1/, with ? n 1/ : An often used consequence of this theorem (or of its proof) is the following proposition. 31. 2 Examples of applications Let us provide some applications of the min-max principle. 0; 1// : L is clearly a self-adjoint operator with compact resolvent. Therefore, we may consider the non-decreasing sequence of its eigenvalues . n /n 1 . By the Cauchy– Lipshitz theorem, these eigenvalues are simple. 2 Min-max principle and spectral theorem 43 eigenfunction un associated with n .

D 02 j@' j2 ' d'. Then we again apply the min-max principle. x2 ; x1 / ; 2 and we consider the magnetic Neumann Laplacian LNeu ˛A0 on with ˛ > 0. 35. ˛ 2 / : Proof. x/ D 0 on @ and that r A0 D 0. Therefore, the magnetic Neumann condition . i r C ˛A0 / n D 0 becomes r n D 0 on @ . In particular, the domain is independent of ˛ (due to our special choice of gauge). ˛/. We have Z j. ˛ 2 / : By using a classical inequality, we get that, for all " > 0, Z j. 1 "/kr ˛ k2L2 . x/j2 : x2 Taking " D ˛, we deduce that kr 2 ˛ kL 2 .

L 1 /u1 k Ä 2 . The conclusion follows since " j 1 j Ä 2 . Let us now only treat the case when N D 2. L " C 2 j Ä " : 2 Ä ". Setting huQ "2 ; u"1 iu"1 ; " 2 1j j 1 2j C "Á : 2 2 1 j " j2 . Up to changing ", we deduce the result. For Moreover, ku"2 k 1 2 N 3, we proceed by induction. 1 The Lax–Milgram theorem Let us recall the well known Lax–Milgram theorem that will allow the definition of many operators in this book. 14 (Lax–Milgram). Let us consider two Hilbert spaces V and H such that V H with continuous injection and with V dense in H.