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By T. Fenchel, G.M. King and T.H. Blackburn (Auth.)

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The remaining 68% is lost as metabolic heat. Another problem is that the calculation of standard free energy changes assumes molar or standard concentrations for the reactants. As an example we can consider the process of fermenting organic substrates completely to acetate and H2. 3, this requires the reoxidation of NADH (produced during glycolysis) by H2 production. 41 V for H2O/H2. 4 kJ, which shows that the reaction is impossible. However, if we assume instead that pH2 is 104 atm (Q  104) we find that ΔGo’  ~ 5.

In one-dimensional diffusion (Fig. 1 below) a concentration gradient results in net flux of material from higher to lower concentrations. 1) D dC/dx. The negative sign indicates that net flux is in a direction from higher to lower concentrations. This equation is referred to as Fick’s first law. The constant D is the diffusion coefficient with the dimension L2T1; it is a characteristic of the solute (largely determined by molecule size), the solvent (mainly viscosity) and temperature. In water, dissolved low molecular weight compounds have a diffusion coefficient on the order of 105 cm2 s1.

The “rhizobia” are the best known and biogeochemically and economically most important examples. They consist of 6 genera in the α-Proteobacteria plus several Burkholderia in the β-Proteobacteria. Rhizobia colonize legumes roots (family Fabaceae) forming nitrogenfixing nodules that contribute significantly to the nitrogen inputs of many terrestrial ecosystems. , Frankia) form similar associations with other plants, such as Myrica and Alnus. The cycads, the aquatic fern Azolla, and some lichens form symbiotic associations with N2-fixing cyanobacteria.

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