Download Analgesia by Christoph Stein, Christoph Stein PDF

By Christoph Stein, Christoph Stein

This quantity makes an attempt to summarize the present nation of data on mechanisms underlying many of the results of analgesics, their part impact profiles, and their symptoms and contraindications in medical use. It additionally offers insights into present efforts to find novel mechanisms underlying the iteration of alternative kinds of ache and the ensuing improvement of recent modulating compounds.

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Sample text

49 49 49 49 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 C. Zöllner · C. 2 Chronic Opioid Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . .

Four families of endogenous ligands (opioid peptides) are known. The standard exogenous opioid analgesic is morphine. Opioid agonists can activate central and peripheral opioid receptors. Three classes of opioid receptors (μ, δ, κ) have been identified. , Gi/o coupling, cAMP inhibition, Ca++ channel inhibition) have been described. The differential regulation of effectors, preclinical pharmacology, clinical applications, and side effects will be reviewed in this chapter. Keywords Central and peripheral opioid receptors · Signal transduction · Clinical applications · Pharmacokinetics and side effects · Routes of administration 1 History Opium is an extract of the exudate derived from seedpods of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum.

9 Side Effects . . . . Acute Opioid Application Cardiovascular System . Respiratory System . . Sedation . . . . . Nausea and Vomiting . Cough Suppression . . Pupil Constriction . . Skeletal Muscle Rigidity . Gastrointestinal System . Histamine Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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