By N. Bowditch
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Additional resources for American Practical Navigator
In addition, the scale is customarily stated on charts on which the scale does not change appreciably over the chart. The ways of expressing the scale of a chart are readily interchangeable. 39 inches. If the natural scale of a chart is 1:80,000, one inch of the chart represents 80,000 inches of the earth, or a little more than a mile. 097. 1) miles to an inch. 9) inch to a mile. 39) = 1:4,374,803. A chart covering a relatively large area is called a small-scale chart and one covering a relatively small area is called a large-scale chart.
The scale is correct along any meridian and along the standard parallel. All other parallels are too great in length, with the error increasing with increased distance from the standard parallel. Since the scale is not the same in all directions about every point, the projection is neither a conformal nor equal-area projection. Its non-conformal nature is its principal disadvantage for navigation. Since the scale is correct along the standard parallel and varies uniformly on each side, with comparatively little distortion near the standard parallel, this projection is useful for mapping an area covering a large spread of longitude and a comparatively narrow band of latitude.
Along any circle whose center is the point of tangency, the distortion is constant. The bearing of any point from the point of tangency is correctly represented. It is for this reason that these projections are called azimuthal. They are also called zenithal. Several of the common azimuthal projections are perspective. 316. Gnomonic Projection If a plane is tangent to the earth, and points are projected geometrically from the center of the earth, the result is a gnomonic projection. See Figure 316a.