By Günther A. Wagner
The Quaternary, which spans nearly the final 2 million years, is characterised by means of dramatic environmental alterations, generally known as the "ice age". in this interval, guy together with his manifold cultures advanced. makes an attempt at relationship those occasions as adequately as attainable have made nice development. The wide spectrum of actual and chemical courting equipment, now to be had for courting human artifacts and Quaternary rocks, is changing into more and more tough to understand. during this ebook some of the chronometric strategies are comprehensively and intelligibly handled. through various case experiences, taken from archaeology and Quaternary geology, the aptitude and quandary of those thoughts are verified. The booklet is meant in most cases for scientists and scholars of those fields, however the layman can also locate its profitable.
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Extra info for Age Determination of Young Rocks and Artifacts. Physical and Chemical Clocks in Quaternary Geology and Archaeology
Coastal sands of the shallow water are more strongly bleached than glaciofluvial sands, and appropriate fundamental investigations on their suitability for luminescence dating are in progress. 4 Alluvium Alluvial sediments are young, unconsolidated sediments that are transported and deposited by streams or other bodies of running water. Mostly they are of polymineral composition and of grain size predominantly in the silt fraction (2 - 63 pm). Alluvial sediments occur in stream beds, flood plains and fans.
5-4). 4 Weathering Rinds and Patina The surfaces of fine-grained basalt fragments, but also of silices, such as chert and flint, frequently show weathering rinds, also known as patina. Through the thickness of weathering rinds (Sect. 1) on glacial debris (1 ka - <1 Ma) a relative dating of the glacial activities is possible. To what 2 Materials extent this method is suitable in order to determine the time since when the surfaces of silices were exposed to weathering (Sect. 2) remains questionable.
For the dating of obsidian flows (> 1 ka) fission tracks (Sect. 1) are suitable. High contents of microlites or vesicles are disturbing. Thermal healing of fission tracks results in too young ages. Obsidian « 1 Ma) with fresh surfaces can be dated by means of hydration (Sect. 2). This application is affected by strong temperature variations of the surfaces, especially in the case of insolation. The suitability of obsidian for the K - Ar method (Sect. 1) is limited by argon loss. Rhyolitic rocks (> 10 ka) may be datable by the U- Th - Pb method (Sect.