By Alessandro Castriota-Scanderbeg, Bruno Dallapiccola
This ebook makes a speciality of the radiographic adjustments of malformation syndromes and skeletal dysplasias. it truly is established such that the reader can establish the radiographic adjustments and relate them to express disorder entities. the purpose is to supply an important, useful guide to the popularity of the major radiographic symptoms for diagnosing malformation syndromes and skeletal dysplasias. The ebook is meant for radiologists, scientific and clinical geneticists, and pediatricians. the fabric is split into elements. the 1st half is dependent in a symptom-oriented shape and describes nearly two hundred radiographic indicators, supplying information regarding their occurrence, anatomic place, diagnostic relevance, pathogenesis, and trend of inheritance, if acceptable. the second one half provides approximately a hundred syndromes and skeletal dysplasias and offers analytical details bearing on signs, genetics, motives, radiographic visual appeal, and significant differential prognosis.
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Inferior vena cava complications Stenosis or thrombosis of the IVC post-transplantation is rare, occurring in less than 1% of cases . IVC stenosis and thrombosis may occur at either the superior or inferior IVC anastomosis. Predisposing factors for IVC stenosis include size discrepancy between donor and recipient IVC or technical problems. IVC thrombosis may occur secondary to extrinsic from an enlarged, edematous liver or fluid collection, such as a biloma or hematoma. Patients who have suprahepatic IVC stenosis/thrombosis may present with hepatomegaly, ascites, and pleural effusions.
Power Doppler image shows absence of blood flow within the portal vein (arrows). Note flow in the hepatic artery (arrowhead). The liver is shrunken and there is ascites seen. Subsequent MR angiogram demonstrated a patent portal vein. The absence of blood flow on ultrasound may have been caused by extremely slow flow within the portal venous system. Portal vein thrombosis can develop in various benign and malignant disease processes. Causes of bland thrombosis include hypercoagulable states (related to use of oral contraceptives, protein C deficiency, polycythemia rubra vera, and antiphospholipid syndrome), slow flow caused by portal hypertension and cirrhosis, intra-abdominal sepsis (pylephlebitis) caused by severe appendicitis, diverticulitis, pancreatitis, or inflammatory bowel disease, splenectomy, and trauma [1,6].
Note the flow is turbulent and there is a focal color bruit (arrow). (B) Color and duplex Doppler image of the left hepatic artery shows turbulent arterial flow with increased diastolic flow compared with the main hepatic artery. Note the focal color bruit (arrow). (C) Color and duplex Doppler image of the main portal vein and hepatic artery shows normal hepatopetal flow in the vein and normal flow in the artery. (From American College of Radiology (ACR). Ultrasound (Third Edition). American College of Radiology; 2005.