By Ian Clarence Hope
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Additional info for A Scientific Way of War: Antebellum Military Science, West Point, and the Origins of American Military Thought
Congress established permanent staff bureaus in Washington, and a system of coastal fortifications and federally controlled mobilization evolved into a coherent national defense policy in 1821. The regulation of military affairs arising from these reforms paralleled a complete overhaul of the military academy under Superintendent Sylvanus Thayer. New regulations, Napoleonic doctrine, and adoption of the French pedagogic system provided mechanisms for the professionalization of the officer corps that commenced in this period.
69 The first he called “tactics,” which he described as movement within reach of each side’s artillery. . 71 Bulow’s fundamental principle for strategic offensive campaigns was an evolution of Turpin’s and Lloyd’s theories and was divided into three essential parts, a base of operations (the base of the triangle), an objective point in enemy territory, and lines of operation from the base to the objective (see fig. 72 41 Figure 1. Heinrich von Bulow’s Optimum Base of Operations. Based on The Spirit of Modern System of War by Heinrich von Bulow (London: T.
Where American militias erected even small earthworks, Cockburn shelled local villages. Where militia garrisons encamped, Cockburn landed forces to exact punishment upon the nearby inhabitants. 1 The Second System defenses did nothing to prevent British domination of major maritime channels. In late June 1813 Cockburn and Warren concentrated twenty vessels, including fourteen ships-of-the-line, with thousands of troops aboard at the waterway of Hampton Roads, threatening the port of Norfolk, Virginia.