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Dopamine Dopaminergic neurons generally have an inhibitory effect. Dopamine-producing neurons project from the substantia nigra to the caudate nucleus and putamen (via the nigrostriatal system) and from the ventral tegmental area to the limbic system and cortex (via the mesolimbic and mesocortical projections). In Parkinson's disease, there is degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons and the substantia nigra. Thus, dopaminergic projections from the substantia nigra to the caudate nucleus and putamen are damaged, and the inhibition of neurons in the caudate nucleus and putamen is impaired.

Neurotransmitter Areas of Concentration Acetylcholine (ACh) Neuromuscular junction, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic neurons, motor nuclei of cranial nerves, caudate nucleus and putamen, basal nucleus of Meynert, portions of the limbic system Norepinephrine (NE) Sympathetic nervous system, locus ceruleus, lateral tegmentum Dopamine (DA) Hypothalamus, midbrain nigrostriatal system Serotonin (5-HT) Parasympathetic neurons in gut, pineal gland, nucleus raphe magnus of pons Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Cerebellum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, striatonigral system Glycine Spinal cord Glutamic acid Spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex Second-Messenger Mediated (Slow) A second mode of chemical synaptic transmission, which is closely related to endocrine communication in nonneural cells, uses receptors that are not directly linked to ion channels; these receptors open or close ion channels or change the levels of intracellular second messengers via activation of Gproteins and production of second messengers.

Moreover, the transmitter molecule is rapidly removed. " Depending on the type of ion channel that is open or closed, fast synaptic transmission can be either excitatory or inhibitory (see Table 3-4). TABLE 3 - 4 Modes of Synaptic Transmission. Directly coupled TABLE 3 - 3 Numeric Classification Sometimes Used for Sensory Neurons. Number Origin 1a Muscle spindle, annulospiral ending Act Golgi tendon organ Act 11 Muscle spindle, flower-spray ending; touch, pressure A|3 III Pain and temperature receptors; some touch receptors A5 b IV Pain and other receptors (fast) Reproduced, with permission, from Ganong WF: Review of Medical Physiology, 22nd ed.

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